Understanding Angular's deferrable views - Part. 1

@defer is the new cool kid on the block

Matthieu Riegler -

Lazy-loading is a hot topic right now when building apps. The more you lazy-load, the smaller your main bundle will be. Angular v17 introduces deferrable views, a way to lazy-load components from the template.

Let's dive into it !

The @defer block


Template deferrable views are wrapped by a @defer() { ... } block. This block instructs the compiler to extract its content and to lazy-load it when a particular trigger is fired.

The @defer syntax is straightforward and looks like this :


  @defer {
    <app-child />

Here the AppComponent will lazy load the app-child component as soon as the app is idle (the default trigger). When serving/building your app you'll be able to see this in the console with the following log (the component name is kept if you use the namedChunk builder option):

Lazy Chunk Files               | Names         |  Raw Size
appchild.component-UIYBMU37.js | -             |   1.62 kB |


For the v17 release, @defer comes with a set of supported conditions and triggers that will determine when to fire the component's loading.

trigger detail
when isVisible This condition precedes the triggers. It can be a variable, a function call, a piped value etc.
Observable and the AsyncPipe are not supported at the time of writing
on idle This the default behavior, it fires when the app idles (with requestIdleCallback)
on immediate The trigger fires immediately when the template is executed
on timer(5s) A setTimeout based trigger, in milliseconds or seconds if s is specified
on interaction(trigger) On click on a template reference where #trigger is a template reference
on hover(trigger) On hover on a template reference, where #trigger is a template reference
on viewport(container) On a template entering the viewport, where #container is a template reference

All these triggers can be combined in a single @defer instruction separated by a comma.

  @defer(on viewport(container), idle) {
    <app-child />


Trigger are great to fire the dynamic loading of the component. But what if we want to speed-up the data fetching by prefetching the imported file ?

This is what the prefetch option is for in the @defer block. prefetch can take a set of conditions (when ...) and triggers (on ...) to determine when to fire the actual loading of the dynamically imported js module.

@defer (on viewport(container); prefetch on timer(5s);  prefetch when isDataLoaded()){
  <app-child />

This way, the component loading starts after the data is loaded or 5s but will only be rendered if its container enters the viewport!

Great isn't it ? 🚀

@defer, what to do render until ?

Until our component gets loaded and rendered, we might need to fill a placeholder. This works by defining a @placeholder block after the defer block. The placeholder will be rendered in the DOM until the defer trigger fired. The placeholder accepts a single parameter minimum which is the minimum time it will be display ever after defer trigger is fired.

It can be pretty useful if we want to trigger when the placeholder enters the viewport.


@defer(on viewport(myPlaceholder)) {
    <app-child />
} @placeholder(minimum 5000ms) {
    <div #myPlaceholder>...</div>

Since lazy-loading might not be instant (huge component, slow network), we might want to show a loading block. This is what the @loading block is for. As @placeholder, it accepts a minimum argument but also an after argument.

In case the lazy-loading fails, we can render an error message by defining it with an @error block. The error block takes no arguments;

@defer(on viewport(myPlaceholder)) {
   <app-child />
} @loading (minimum 1s; after 100ms){
} @error {
  Loading failed :( 
The content of the @placeholder, @loading and @error blocks are eagerly loaded.


Here is a complete(ly overcrowded) example of defer's possibilities with every feature we've seen so far :

  • when conditions
  • on triggers
  • prefetch triggers
  • @placeholder block
  • @loading block
  • @error block


@defer (when isVisible() && foo; 
        on hover(button), timer(10s), idle, immediate, interaction(button), viewport(container); 
        prefetch on immediate; prefetch when isDataLoaded()) {
  <calendar-cmp [date]="current"/>
@placeholder (minimum 500){
  Placeholder content!
@loading (minimum 1s; after 100ms){
@error {
  Loading failed :( 

Here for you, a stackblitz playground to start playing with this amazing new feature!


In the upcoming article, we'll take a deep dive into the technical details of the deferrable views. How they work, how to use them and optimize your templates for them. Stay tuned.

Edit: Part 2. is available here